EVMC Laboratory serves dual functions: Diagnosis and Research. The laboratory offers a vast range of testing panels to support EVMC clinicians and external veterinarians to efficiently diagnose a wide range of diseases affecting horses. The test portfolio of the diagnostic laboratory is constantly increasing and international accreditation for majority of these tests is under process.
With a team of several veterinarians and laboratory technicians specialized in pathology, clinical pathology, veterinary microbiology and molecular diagnostics the laboratory operates 24/7 under strict institutional biosafety and biosecurity regulations. Periodic quality controls and quality assessments are in place to ensure that EVMC diagnostic laboratory reports can be guaranteed.
For the type of test, required sample, sample handling, and turnaround time, please click on the desired service section.
The hematology services include testing blood samples for any abnormalities on the cellular number, morphology, and reactivity of blood constituent cells. This section covers assessing clinical conditions that reflect alterations in the blood profile due to bacterial, fungal, viral, chlamydial, nutritional, allergic, and parasitic diseases in horses. This section also covers abnormalities of blood cells architecture, haemoglobin, coagulation factors and blood proteins, blood-forming organs, malignancies, and cancers. Hematology service offer CBC with differential, blood coagulation tests, and body fluid cell counts using leading market analysers.
|Coagulation Test PT, APTT||1 hr|
|BF Cell Count||1 hr|
|Equine Activated Coag test iSTAT||30 mins|
Vital organs such as the heart, liver, kidneys, and lungs communicate with each other through chemical regulators synthesised in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm of the cells in these organs. Analyses of these biochemical substances are crucial in assessing the cellular pathophysiological status of the organs in gastrointestinal, genitourinary, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive and musculoskeletal systems and hence the health of these organs are assessed. Our laboratory offers common clinical chemistry test panels for horses. This includes comprehensive profile: Glucose, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Creatinine, Total Protein, Albumin, Globulins, Phosphorus, Sodium, Chloride, Potassium, Total CO2, Anion gap, Total and Ionized Calcium, Total Bilirubin, Alkaline Phosphate, ALT, and GGT. Others are renal, liver and muscle profiles, inflammation assessment (Total protein, Albumin, Globulin, Amyloid A in serum), electrolytes balance assessment (Na, Cl, Mg, PO4, Ca, K) and equine weight loss profile (AP, GGT, Bile Acid, Albumin, TP, Total globulin, A/G ratio and CBC). Equine blood gas panel includes testing pH, pCO2, pO2, tHb, K+, Na+, cCa2+, Cl–, Glu, Lac, Crea, Urea, tBil in the whole blood. Cholesterol, Triglycerides HDL and LDL are also available on demand. Urinalysis is carried out using urine dipstick test, total protein and specific gravity are performed by refractometer along with direct microscopy, stained and unstained urine cytology and urine culture.
|Comprehensive Panel||2 hrs|
|Electrolyte Panel||1 hr|
|Muscle/Training Panel||1 hr|
|Liver Panel||1 hr|
|Renal Panel||1 hr|
|Geriatric Panel||2 hrs|
|Anesthetic Panel||1 hr|
|Lactate Test||1 hr|
|IgG (Roche)||1 hr|
|Blood Gas||30 mins|
|iSTAT Cardiac Troponins (cTnI)||30 mins|
|iSTAT 4+ Lactat & Blood Gas||30 mins|
|Urinalysis-Strip dip + Microscopy||1 hr|
This section is simple yet vital in maintaining the well-being of horses by detecting external and internal parasites or parasitic ova in the fecal or skin scraping samples. Internal parasites being one of the common health concerns among horses wherein intestinal parasite like ascarids, large and small strongyles and tapeworms may cause weight loss, anemia, diarrhea and colic. Direct mount microscopy, fecal flotation, fecal sedimentation for lung worms, fecal sand test, Knott’s test for equine microfilaria, fecal worm egg reduction test, Baermann’s test for nematode larvae and quantitation of egg parasites in the stool using McMaster fecal egg count are the routine tests at the laboratory. Peripheral blood smears for suspected equine piroplasmosis and cryptosporidiosis are examined using staining and microscopy. Skin scraping KOH test for checking external parasites and dermatophytes is available. Fecal occult blood test and nematode larvae culture test are in line to be added to the laboratory portfolio.
|Fecal Flotation||1 hr|
|Direct Saline Smear||1 hr|
|Fecal Egg Count||1 hr|
|Fecal Sedimentation||1 hr|
|Fecal Flotation & Sedimentation||2 hr|
|Blood Parasite||1 hr|
|Fecal Sand Test||2 hr|
Blood and urine are composed of various protein moieties integral indicators in both health and disease conditions. Separating and quantifying these proteins from a serum and urine sample aid in diagnosis of infectious, allergic, nutritional and parasitic diseases in horses. Serum protein electrophoresis is also a valuable tool for the diagnosis of combined immunodeficiency in Arabian horses. Total Protein, Pre-Albumin, Albumin, globulins (Alpha globulin, Beta globulin, Gamma globulin) are assessed in automated capillary electrophoresis machines.
|Serum Protein Electrophoresis||1 hr|
|Urine Protein Electrophoresis||1 hr|
Our molecular diagnostic laboratory detects a wide range of viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections by using qPCR, which is a powerful technique and used for rapid detection of pathogens, including those, which are difficult to culture. Advantages of Real-Time PCR include greater sensitivity, reproducibility, rapid analysis, better control of quality in the process, and a lower risk of contamination.
|Equine herpes virus 1||2-3 working days|
|Equine herpes virus 4||2-3 working days|
|Equine Influenza H3N8 & H7N7||2-3 working days|
|Rabies virus||2-3 working days|
|Rhodococcus equi||2-3 working days|
|Streptococcus equi||2-3 working days|
|West Nile Virus||2-3 working days|
|African Horse Sickness virus||2-3 working days|
|Rotavirus & Corona Virus||2-3 working days|
|Lawsonia intracellularis||2-3 working days|
|Clostridium difficile (Toxin A)||2-3 working days|
|Clostridium difficile (Toxin B)||2-3 working days|
|Babesia caballi||2-3 working days|
|Theileria equi||2-3 working days|
|Klebsiella pneumoniae||2-3 working days|
|Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule type 1, 2, 5||2-3 working days Individual test|
The microbiology laboratory performs phenotype profiling for a wide range of bacteria and fungi of veterinary importance using standard microbiological techniques of culturing, incubating, isolation and identification with automated biochemical and proteomic approaches (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry). The laboratory is equipped with automated microbial detection system with quick and efficient microbial detection in blood or other body fluids (CSF, plural, pericardial, and joint fluids) using aerobic and anaerobic culture media bottles.
Isolation, ID and AST of oxygen-sensitive anaerobic bacteria are performed in atmosphere controlled anaerobic chamber. Different enrichment culture procedures are available for the identification of organisms. Both automated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and manual disc diffusion method based on zone of bacterial inhibition around the antibiotic disc, are available for antimicrobial susceptibility under CLSI and EUCAST guidelines.
The laboratory receives a wide range of clinical and environmental samples for bacterial and fungal isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) on a daily basis. Various test plans are available for diagnosis and research.
|Bacterial culture - aerobic (1 - 2 bacterial IDs & no AST)||2-3 working days|
|Bacterial culture - anaerobic (1 - 2 bacterial IDs & no AST)||2-3 working days|
|Antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST)||1-2 working days|
|Blood culture - aerobic (1 - 2 bacterial IDs & no AST)||2-4 working days|
|Blood culture - anaerobic (1 - 2 bacterial IDs & no AST)||2-4 working days|
|Body fluid culture - aerobic (1 - 2 bacterial IDs & no AST)||2-4 days|
|Body fluid culture - anaerobic (1 - 2 bacterial IDs & no AST)||2-5 days|
|Bacterial ID||1-3 days|
|Salmonella culture||2-4 working days|
|Clostridium culture||2-4 working days|
|Streptococcus equi culture||1-3 working days|
|Fungal KOH fluorescent stain||1 working day|
|Fungal culture (Includes fungal ID & no susceptibility test)||3-7 working days|
|Fungal susceptibility test||3-7 working days|
|Fungal ID||3-7 working days|
|Enteric bacteriology Panel 1 Salmonella + clostridium culture||3-7 working days|
|Enteric bacteriology Panel 2 Aerobic + Anaerobic + salmonella + clostridium||3-7 working days|
|Dermatology panel KOH + Aerobic culture + Fungal culture||3-7 working days|
|Environmental sterility test||1-3 working days|
|Necropsy bacterial culture panel||3-7 working days|
|Water microbiology panel Total Viable count + Coliform count||2-3 working days|
The endocrine glands: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries and testes produce hormones necessary for balanced functions in metabolisms, general growth, reproduction, and the body’s response to combat stress. Our diagnostic tests for the endocrine system are building up. We use automated fluorescence enzyme immunoassay for adrenocorticotropic hormones, progesterone, testosterone, free thyroxine, insulin and cortisol. Adiponectin, Anti-Müllerian hormone, leptin, estradiol, and inhibin using equine specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are in line to be added to the endocrinology lab.
In histopathology, physical alterations to the cellular architecture in response to infectious, necrotic or neoplastic insult to the tissue samples are observed under the microscope. Currently, common histopathology services are available for examining endometrial biopsies, visceral organ tissues samples from post-mortem cases, and samples from the tumors. Apart from routine H&E stain, various other stains are also used on the processed fine sections of the tissues for examination. The histopathology laboratory is equipped with Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization staining equipment for diagnosis and research.
|Endometrial Biopsy Full-upto 2 sites||3 - 5 working days|
|Soft Tissue Biopsy Full-upto 2 sites||As above|
|Melanoma Biopsy Full -upto 2 sites||As above|
In comparison to histopathology techniques, diagnostic cytology provides a quick and relatively non-invasive way to evaluate the cellular reaction to infection, inflammation and neoplasms. Important factors affecting the cytological picture are: the type of injury or the type of invading pathogen, the site of infection process, its route of entry and the stage of the disease i.e. acute and chronic recurrent phase. The types of cells such as epithelial cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, bacteria or fungi are evaluated. The role of specific cells such as in ensuing immune response, phagocytic activity of monocytes and their activated forms in removing cell debris and pathogenic organisms, the extent of tissue damage, the stage of disease and the prognosis are assessed. Currently, Diff Quick or Giemsa stain, Gram’s stain, Papanicolaou and PAS stains are routinely used for diagnostic cytology.
|General Body Fluid Panel||2 hr|
|Peritoneal Fluid Panel||2 hr|
|Joint Fluid Panel||2 hr|
|Blood Cytology Smear||1 hr|
|Joint Fluid Cytology Slide||1 hr|
|Peritoneal Fluid Cytology||1 hr|
|TTW Cytology||1 hr|
|CSF Cytology||1 hr|
|Bone Marrow Cytology||1 hr|
|Endometrial Cytology||1 hr|
|FNA Cytology||1 hr|
|Impression Smear Cytology||1 hr|
|Urine Cytology||1 hr|
A well-established necropsy service is available at EVMC carried out by a renowned pathologist with years of experience. Apart from regular necropsy for neonatal and adult horses, we also examine aborted fetuses and placentas to understand the plausible cause of death. Strict biosecurity measures are in place and efficient carcass disposal by a third party contractor is available. Presenting approved Necropsy Request Form is mandatory for carrying out the necropsy examination.
|Necropsy||2 working days|
|Necropsy||5-7 working days|
|Necropsy||5-7 working days|
Regenerative Medicine Therapy
At the moment the laboratory offers platelet rich plasma (PRP) and Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Protein (IRAP) which are concentrated from the blood samples of in-house horse patients at EVMC. These therapies are getting popular for the treatment of musculo-skeletal injuries and osteoarthritis in horses. Platelets are blood cells smaller than RBC, play an important role in hemostasis, and are considered to be the natural sources of growth factors. The growth factors are believed to be actively involved in wound healing and other regenerative processes in the wake of injuries. These growth factors are rich in concentrated platelet preparations. After preparation, these products are injected back into the same horses sampled to promote tissues repair in joint and soft tissue injuries. At the site of trauma and joint swelling inflammatory proteins such as cytokines and Interleukin-1 (IL-1) are released, IRAP therapy prevents IL-1 binding to the joint tissues minimizing the damaging effect of IL-1 in the affected joint. Other products such as stem cell therapy are in line to be added to EVMC laboratory. Regenerative medicine laboratory is following strict good manufacturing practices (GMP).
|Platelet Rich Plasma||Same day|
|iRAP processing||2 working days|